ГуманитариЙ актуальные проблемы гуманитарной науки и образования
Russian Journal of the Humanities
ISSN 2078-9823 (Print)
ISSN 2587-7879 (Online)
ISSN 2078-9823 (Print), ISSN 2587-7879 (Online)
Vaycheslav M. Meshkov
Korolenko Poltava National Pedagogical University (Poltava, Ukraine),
Friedrich Nietzsche about “the Free Minds”
Introduction. The theme of “free minds”, which Nietzsche developed during his philosophical career, occupies an important place in his creative heritage. In a sense, it is a further development of Plato’s doctrine of the “true philosopher”, the bearer of exemplary piety and reason. By means of mental constructs “free mind”, “knowing man”, “theoretical man”, “free philosopher”, “Zarathustra” F. Nietzsche not only deeply and fully showed the creative principle of creative personalities, but also revealed the complex, sometimes their tragic life, because he often wrote about himself. The aim of the study is to trace the meaningful evolution of this important topic in the philosophy and life of the German philosopher. Materials and Methods. The works of F. Nietzshe served as the source of the research. In the course of the work, the method of thematic cultural analysis was used, which makes it possible to track the meaningful development of the main philosophical themes, their semantic interrelationships in the conceptual constructions of the philosopher. And also, the method of existential-transcendental analysis was used, with the help of which the opportunity opened up to study the living conditions and spiritual aspirations of the German philosopher. Discussion. “Free minds” always have to prove their right to exist. Unlike “bound minds”, they should strive to free themselves from petty connections and relationships in everyday life. In the guise of Zarathustra, F. Nietzsche created an almost ascetic image of a “free mind” that “scorched by the sun” in the desert, “hungry, strong and lonely” “breaks his heart”. If for Plato the highest ability of a person was his mind, which provided transcendental knowledge of metaphysical being, then for F. Nietzsche this was the volitional principle. Surviving the “great break” is a universal law for all “free minds” discovered by Nietzsche. He captured the moment of the “birth” of the “free mind”, the initial impulse, which will largely determine his further life path. Spiritual loneliness and independence are an indispensable condition for the life of a “free mind”. The last phase in the formation of a “free mind” is the realization of his fate as a lonely wanderer, destined and doomed to create new truths, values and ideas. Results. The great philosopher F. Nietzsche has always been a transcendental person, a genuine “free mind”, which predetermined the depth of his philosophical thought. In the last years of his philosophical activity, nihilistic attitudes began to gain strength, which led to an exacerbation of the conflict in his psyche. Therefore, the doctrine of the “free mind” is one of the main philosophical achievements of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Keywords: “true philosopher”, “free mind”, transcendental man, life-world, transcendental existentialist.
For citation: Meshkov V. M. Friedrich Nietzsche about “the Free Minds”. Gumanitarian : aktual’nye problemy gumanitarnoi nauki i obrazovaniia = Russian Journal of the Humanities. 2020; 20(4): 415–432 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.15507/2078-9823.052.020.202004.415-432.
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